Surgery for Parkinson’s Disorder
Parkinson’s Disorder is a neurodegenerative disorder which till date has no complete cure. Normally medication is given for offering comfort to the patient and medically manage the disorder. Surgery is given a try in some of the patients in whom severe degeneration is witnessed.
Normally surgical methods such as ablation, deep brain stimulation (DBS), palllidotomy, cerebral transplantation are performed.
Ablation: The degenerated cells are located, targeted and finally destroyed using a targeted light diffusing element. Destroying of the malfunctioning cells results in the destruction of abnormal chemical or electrical transmitters of information present in the brain that cause abnormal movements.
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS): In deep brain stimulation an electrode is implanted. DBS targets the area of the brain where uncontrolled movements originate. The targeted region is only inactivated but never destroyed. The electrode is connected to a stimulator. It needs in lot of experience and expertise to decide which patient requires a deep brain stimulation.
Pallidotomy: Through this procedure is applied to a minute area of the brain involved in the motor functioning of the brain is targeted. It is a very delicate surgery. Normally motor symptom abnormalities are rectified by this procedure. The effects are almost immediate. Two probes ( tracing material) are administered one to deliver minute electric shock and the other one to measure the electric activity. The patient is usually awake and the procedure produces almost immediate results.
Cerebral transplantation: Dopamine (chemical transmitting messages in the brain) is deficient in the Parkinson’s disorder. The stem cells containing dopamine are transplanted through grafting. It is still in the experimental stages itself.